Spanish - Nouns

After nouns: Adjectives

Adjectives usually come after the noun they are describing.


  • un vestido azul (a blue dress)
  • una camisa roja (a red shirt)

Before nouns

Words like first, second, next, last go before the noun:

  • el primer piso
  • la tercera puerta
  • la próxima semana
  • la última semana


All nouns are either masculine or feminine.

  • masculine: nouns often end in -o, use el, e.g. el niño (the boy)
  • feminine: nouns often end in -a, use la, e.g. la niña (the girl)

Nouns end in consonants:

  • masculine: l, r. E.g. hospital, tenedor.
  • feminine: pared, habitación, televisión, costumbre, luz.

Languages and days of the week are always masculine, no matter the ending letter.

The endings of adjectives depend on the gender of what they describe.

E.g. americano (male) / americana (female)


Just like in English, add -s or -es (if the word ends in a consonant) to the end of the word.

  • libro => libros
  • el bolígrafo => los bolígrafos
  • la carta => las cartas
  • las mujeres

If a word ends in -z (e.g. lapiz, pez, feliz), remove the -z and add -ces to make it plural.

  • el pez => los peces
  • la vaca feliz => las vacas felices

Add -s / -es to both nouns and adjectives

  • el zapato verde => los zapatos verdes

Also mi / tu / su

  • mi / tu / su camisa => mis / tus / sus camisas


Words describing a noun should agree in their gender:

  • un / el niño mexicano
  • una / la niña mexicaa


The word changes depending on the gender of the person

  • maestro / maestra: teacher
  • profesor / profesora: professor
  • médico / médica: doctor

el agua

El is often used for masculine nouns and la for feminine ones. But when the noun begins with a stressed a- or ha-, you must use el regardless of the gender.