无脊椎动物 Invertebrates


有脊椎动物 Vertebrates

  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Reptiles: turtles, tortoises, lizards, snakes, crocodilians
  • Amphibians: frogs, toads, salamanders, newts
  • Fish

无脊椎动物 Invertebrates


  • Worms: flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms
  • Arthropod (节肢动物): insects, centipedes, crabs, spiders, scorpions
  • Mollusks (软体动物): slugs, snails, octopuses, squid, oysters, clams
  • Echinoderms (棘皮动物): starfish
  • Cnidarians (刺胞动物): jellyfish, hydroid(水螅) sea anemones(海葵) corals

Mollusks 软体动物

  • slugs, snails, oysters, clams, octopuses, squid, cuttlefish.
  • most have a soft body and muscular base called a foot. Many have protective shells and feed using a moving ribbon of teeth called radula.

Arthropods 节肢动物

  • four out of five animal species are arthropods.
  • insects, spiders and crabs.

Echinoderms 棘皮动物

  • bodies are usually formed from five equal parts arranged in a circle.
  • starfish, sea cucumber, urchin, feather star

Cnidarians 刺胞动物

  • jellyfish, hydroid(水螅), sea anemones(海葵), corals

Coral reef: covering 1% of ocean floor but home to 25% of all marine creatures.


roundworms, segmented worms, flatworms.