副词

副词用来修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。副词分为多种,有时间副词(Time adv)、频率副词(Frequency adv)、地点副词(Place adv)、方式副词(Manner adv)、程度副词(Degree adv)、连接副词(Conjunction adv)、关系副词(Adverbial Clause adv)、表顺序的副词(Order adv)等。

副词的作用

副词修饰动词

副词最主要的功能就是修饰动词,表示动作发生的方式、程度等,如:

You speak English fluently. 你英语说得很流利。

We arrived early this morning. 今天早上我们提早到了。

副词修饰形容词

一些副词可以修饰形容词,如:

That's really nice. 那真的很好。

副词修饰副词

一些副词可以修饰其它副词,如:

She did it very well. 她做的很棒。

副词修饰名词

一些副词可以修饰名词,来表明时间或地点,如:

The concert tomorrow starts at 7. 明天的音乐会7点开始。

副词修饰名词短语

一些程度副词可以修饰名词短语,例如quite, rather, so, such等,如:

They're such nice people. 他们是如此亲切的人。

副词修饰代词、数量词和限定词

一些副词可以修饰代词、数量词和限定词,这类副词例如almost, nearly, hardly, about等,如:

Almost everyone came to the party. 几乎所有人都去了那个派对。

副词可修饰句子

句子副词用于修饰句子(而不是修饰某个单词),反映说话人的观点和看法,如 actually, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, fortunately, frankly, honestly, luckily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, probably, surely, undoubtedly, unexpectedly 等。句子副词通常位于句首(或分句句首),但有些句子副词也可以出现在句中,如:

Luckily the meeting had been delayed. 幸好会议推迟了。

He absolutely knows something I don’t. 他显然知道一些我所不知道的事。

副词的种类

时间副词(Time adv)

一些副词说明了事情发生或将要发生的时间,例如:just, immediately, later, now, finally, soon, Sunday, next week, last Tuesday等。

【例句】

1.I went to the supermarket last Tuesday. 我上周二去了超市。

2.He's going to ask you some questions later. 他等会儿要问你一些问题。

3.Finally we meet each other. 我们终于见面了。

频率副词(Frequency adv)

频率副词表明某件事情发生的频率,例如(频率由高到低):always, constantly, nearly always, almost always, usually, generally, normally, regularly, often, frequently, sometimes, periodically, occasionally, now and then, once in a while, rarely, seldom, infrequently, hardly ever, scarcely ever, almost never, never等。

【例句】

频率副词出现的位置:句首或句尾、主语和动词之间、助动词和实意动词之间、系动词之后:

1.She goes there sometimes. 她有时去那里。

2.I usually do my homework at night. 我一般在晚上写作业。

3.You have never seen me drawing. 你从来没见过我画画。

4.They were always late. 他们总是迟到。

另外当某些事情是规律性的发生,则可以用以下频率副词:everyday, daily, every week, weekly, ever two weeks, fortnightly, every month, monthly, every year, yearly/annually等。

【例句】

1.I read newspaper everyday. 我每天都读报纸。

2.I pay my rent monthly. 我按月交房租。

地点副词(Place adv)

地点副词表明事情发生的地点,例如:abroad, around, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, here, outside, here, there, underground, upstairs, downstairs, inside, outside等。

【例句】

1.It must be somewhere in this room. 它一定在这个房间的某个地方。

2.They are playing upstairs. 他们正在楼上玩。

3.Let's get outside. 我们到外面吧。

方式副词(Manner adv)

方式副词表明动作发生的方式,这类副词常常是由形容词加ly变形而来,如anxiously, badly, beautifully, capably, luckily, quickly, weakly, carefully, properly, suddenly, normally, calmly, politely, softly, warmly, slowly等。

【例句】

1.The boy ran to the door quickly. 男孩迅速跑向门。

2.James got hurt very badly. 詹姆斯受伤很严重。

3."What can I do for you?" He asked politely. “我能为您做什么?”他礼貌地问。

程度副词(Degree adv)

程度副词表示事情发生的力度或强度,一般这类副词用来回答类似"How much ...?"或"How little...?"这样的问题。

程度副词包括:little, very, much, rather, adequately, so, too, still, quite, enough, slightly, hardly, almost, entirely, extremely, greatly, highly, hugely, immensely, moderately, partially, perfectly, practically, profoundly, strongly, totally, tremendously, virtually等。

【例句】

1.We enjoyed the film very much. 我们非常享受这部电影。

2.It's extremely cold there. 那里极度寒冷。

3.I'm strongly against this proposal. 我强烈反对这个提议。

连接副词(Conjunctive adv)

连接副词可分为两类,一类是用于连接句子或从句,常见的有therefore, besides, otherwise, however, moreover, still, thus, meanwhile等;另一类是用于引导从句或不定式,主要的有when, why, where, how等。

【注意】有的连接副词(如however等)后通常有逗号与句子的其他成分隔开。另外,这类副词有的还可位于句中或句末。

连接句子或从句的连接副词

其性质类似于并列连词,使用时其前通常用分号或句号;若其前用逗号,则通常带有并列连词(如and).

【例句】

1.I don’t like it, besides, it’s too expensive. 我不喜欢它,而且也太贵了。

2.We all tried our best. However, we lost the game. / We all tried out best. We lost the game, however. 我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了。

引导从句和不定式的连接副词

用于引导从句(名词性从句)或不定式的连接副词主要有when, why, where, how等。

【例句】

1.Tell me where I can find him. 告诉我在哪能找到他。

2.That’s why I'm doing this. 那就是我做这件事的原因。

关系副词(Adverbial Clause adv)

关系副词用于引出定语从句,且在从句中用作状语,主要有when, where, why, that, which, what等,引导定语从句时,when 的先行词为时间,where的先行词为地点,why的先行词为原因(主要是the reason)。

【例句】

1.That’s the reason why I chose you. 这就是我选你的原因。

2.Do you know a website where I can learn English? 你知道一个我可以学习英语的网站吗?

【注意】how 不能用作关系副词,不要想当然地将how用作关系副词置于the way 后表示方式。例如:

这就是我们取胜的方法。

误:This is the way how we won.

正:This is how we won. / This is the way (that, in which) we won.

表顺序的副词(Order adv)

这类副词在句中表示动作发生的先后顺序,如first, then, next, finally, afterwards, primarily等。

【例句】

1.First, I'd like to welcome all the guests here. 首先,我想欢迎所有到场的客人们。

2.He picked up his phone, then dialed a number. 他拿起了他的电话,然后拨了一个号码。

形容词或名词变形副词

副词常常是由形容词或名词变形而来,变形方法为形容词尾加-ly:

1.大多数变形直接在词尾加-ly, 如:

quick -> quickly; sudden -> suddenly; intelligent -> intelligently;

2.形容词以y结尾的,将y变为i, 再加-ly, 如:

angry -> angrily; busy -> busily;

3.形容词以不发音的e结尾的,去掉e再加-ly, 如:

feeble -> feebly; true -> truly;

4.某些形容词以ly结尾,则不需变形,如:heavenly, 但有些例外,如:

sly -> slyly; shy -> shyly;

5.以-ble结尾的副词,将-ble变为-bly, 如:

responsible -> responsibly;

某些副词不是由形容词或名词变形,也不是以ly结尾,如:

fast, hard, straight.

副词的比较等级

副词和形容词一样,也有它的比较级(Comparative)和最高级(Superlative)形式,可以参考形容词的变换形式。但以-ly 结尾的副词(除early)须用 more 和 most.

副词变形比较级和最高级规则

1.单音节副词的比较级是在副词后面加上 -er 构成的,最高级是在副词后面加上 -est 构成的。如: near -> nearer -> nearest; hard -> harder -> hardest; fast -> faster -> fastest

2.以y结尾的副词,将y变为i, 再加-er或-est. 如: early -> earlier -> earliest

3.多音节副词的比较级是在副词的前面加上 -more 构成的。最高级是在副词前面加上 -most 构成的。如: warmly -> more warmly -> most warmly; successfully -> more successfully -> most successfully

4.有些副词的比较级和最高级形式是不规则的。如: well -> better -> best; little -> less -> least; much -> more -> most; badly -> worse -> worst; far -> farther/further -> farthest/furthest.

副词比较级和最高级用法

副词的比较级和最高级用法同形容词的比较级用法基本一样,最高级形式句中the可以省略。

【例句】

1.He works harder than anyone else in our team. 他工作比我们组其他任何人都努力。

2.Jason runs fastest in our class. 杰森在我们班跑的最快。

3.She speaks English more fluently than him. 她英语讲的比他好。

4.Team A play football best in our school. A队在我们学校足球踢的最好。