连词

如果要让英语更加流畅,连词是必不可少的,它在英语中出现的十分频繁。连词不仅起到连接作用,还表示了两个句子或词之间特定的关系。从大类上区分,连词分为并列连词(Coordinating Conjunctions)和从属连词(Subordinating Conjunctions),另外如果将连词成对使用,这样的连词对叫做关联词(Correlatives).

连词的分类及作

并列连词

并列连词在句中起到连接两个或两个以上地位平等的部分的作用,这两个部分可以是两个句子、两个名词短语、形容词、副词等各种词语或短语。这些词主要有: and, but, or, yet, so.

  1. and: 表示“和、并、又”,连接两个语法相同的词、短语或句子,如:She is a beautiful girl, and a nice person.
  2. but/yet: 表示“可是,但,不过”,but和yet可以互换,连接的两个部分中,后者是前者的转折,如:I tried to get up, but/yet I was too sleepy.
  3. or: 表示“或者,否则”,用or连接的两部分是选择关系,如:Let's go to the museum or the library.
  4. so: 表示“所以,因此”,因果关系,如:John was hungry when he got home, so he made some noodles.

从属连词

从属连词在句中将独立的句子或从句与主句联系起来,来表示两者之间的关系,并且从句要依赖主句来体现意义,因此主句与从句地位是不相同的。

从属连词主要用来引导名词性从句和状语从句,名词性从句主要有:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句;而状语从句主要有时间、地点、条件、目的、结果、原因、让步、方式和比较状语从句。各种从句的连词主要如下表所示:

引导名词性从句

that是确定意义的连词,而if和whether则是不确定的,表示一种猜测,表示“是否”,如:

同位语从句:It's a mystery that nobody can solve. 宾语从句:I'm not sure if/whether I locked the door.

引导状语从句

时间状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作时间状语,常用连词有:when, while, as, before, after, until, since等。

【例句】 When I looked out of the window, it began to snow. We need to get out of here before it's too late.

地点状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作地点状语,常用连词有:where, wherever等。

【例句】 Show me the place where you found this ring.

条件状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作时间状语,常用连词有:if, unless等。

【例句】 If it rains tomorrow, we will have to stay at home.

目的状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作目的状语,常用连词有:so that, in order that等。

【例句】 We built this website so that English learners can have more useful resources.

结果状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作结果状语,常用连词有:that, so, therefore等。

【例句】 He didn't pay enough attention, therefore he made many mistakes.

原因状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作原因状语,常用连词有:because, as, since等。

【例句】 We had a party because it was Ben's birthday last Sunday.

让步状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作让步状语,常用连词有:although, even though, even if等。

【例句】 He did it even though he failed so many times.

方式状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作方式状语,常用连词有:as though, as if等。

【例句】 He is so serious about this as if nothing else matters.

比较状语从句

引导的从句在整句中作比较状语,常用连词有:than, as等。

【例句】 John runs faster than Andy does.

关联词

关联词是成对出现的连词,它们用来表示句子各部分之间的关系。常用关联词有: both...and; either...or; neither...nor; not only...but also

  1. both A and B: 用来表示A, B两者都...,如: Both my father and my mother are teachers.
  2. either A or B: 用来表示或者A, 或者B, 两者取其一,如: Either you or John will be hired.
  3. neither A nor B: 用来表示不是A也不是B, 两者都不,如: Neither team A nor team B won the game.
  4. not only A but also B: 用来表示不仅A, 而且B, 表示递进关系,如: You're not only a good company, but also my best friend.