介词

介词即Prepositions, 简称为prep, 介词一般用于名词或者代词前面,表示其与句中其它词之间的关系。介词后面一般有名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类、短语或从句作它的宾语,介词和宾语组成的介宾短语在句中作状语,表语,补语,定语或介词宾语。介词可以分为时间介词、地点介词、方式介词、原因介词、数量介词和其他介词。

介词的分类及作用

表示时间

表示在某一时间

常用介词有at, on, in等,如:

at 1:15 / night / the weekend on Monday / June 24th / Valentine's Day in July / the spring / the morning

表示某一时间段

常用介词有during, for, over, within, throughout, from, to, between等,如:

during that summer for two days over 10 years within this month throughout the whole year from Monday to Friday
between 1 and 1:20

表示时间前后等其它概念

常用介词有before, after, since, until, till, by, up to, around, over等。

before表示在...之前,如: before 2020 after表示在...之后,如: after this meeting since表示自从...以来,常用在完成式的句中,如: since last year until/till表示直到...,如: until/till next month by表示到...为止,如: by the end of September around表示...左右,如: around 6 o'clock over表示超过...,如: over a month

表示方位

常用介词有at, in, on, to, above, over, below, under, in front of, in the front of, next to /beside /by,behind, after, between等

at表示在小地方,“在...附近,旁边”,如: at the airport in表示在大地方,“在...范围之内”,如: in Beijing on表示在...上面,在物体上面并与之接触,如: on the table to 表示在...范围外,在...方向,或到...,不强调是否接触,如: to the west

above指在...上方,但与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触,与below相对,如:The bird is flying above my head. over指垂直的上方,但与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触,与under相对,如:There is a bridge over the river. below指在...下方,但不一定正下方,如:Please write your name below the line. under指在...正下方,如:There is a cat under the table.

in front ofin the front of都是指是“在...前面”,但不同的是A in front of B指的是A在B的前方,但两者不相交,互不包括,其反义词是behind; 而A in the front of B指的是A在B的前部,A是在B的内部的,其反义词是at the back of. 如: There is a pool in front of our house. Our teacher stands in the front of the classroom.

behind表示在...后面,与之相近的还有 after, 但behind常用来表示静止的物体,而after常用来表示有先后顺序的、动态的两个物体。如: Did you see the boy behind the tree? They are running after the thief.

beside表示在...旁边,与之相近的还有 next toby, 如: Sit beside/ next to/ by me.

between表示在...和...之间,一般与and连用,形成between A and B的句型,如: I'm between 1st Street and 2nd Street.

表示原因

表示原因常用的介词有for, as, since等,如: I did it for a reason. I can help you as /since I'm a teacher.

表示方法

常用介词有by, with, without, through等,如: I go to work by bus. Let's cut it open with this knife. I can't live without you. We can solve it through this way.

表示数量

表示数量的常用介词有about/around, over等,如: There are about/around 100 people in the store. I got over 1000 comments on this post.

表示进行

有些介词作表语时,还可以表示正在进行的动作,如:

I'm at work. Everything is on fire! The road is under construction.