动词

动词

动词可以表示一个动作、变化或存在等,在句中动词的意义、状态对整句话的意思起到决定性的作用,可以说是句子的灵魂。

动词的分类

动词分为系动词(Link Verbs)、情态动词(Modal Verbs)、助动词(Auxiliary Verbs)、实意动词(Main Verbs)等。

1.系动词

即is, am, are, be, 系动词没有实际意义,起到连接的作用,表示主语的特征、状态和身份等,如:

I am not at work. Don't be shy.

2.情态动词

表示特定的语气、能力、许可、意愿等,但情态动词不能单独作谓语,需要和动词原形搭配使用,情态动词用在实意动词的前面,主要有can(could), may(might), shall(should), will(would), must, need, ought to, dare(dared)等,如:

I should go now. You must remember this.

3.助动词

没有实际意义,在句中与实意动词一起构成各种时态、否定、疑问句型等,主要有do(does, did), have(has, had)等,如:

I do not think this is a good idea. She has been a doctor for years.

4.实意动词

实意动词分为两种:及物动词(Transitive verbs, 简称vt), 不及物动词(Intransitive verbs, 简称vi).

及物动词后需要加上宾语使用,如: Thank you. I need to do my homework.

而不及物动词则不能加宾语,需要借助一些介词,如: Birds can fly. Why don't you look at me?

而有些动词既是及物动词,又是不及物动词,所以它们既能加宾语,也可以不加宾语使用,如:

vt: They speak English. vi: He was speaking to me.

动词的作用

动词描述了具体的行为动作、心理、状态等等,在句中常常用作谓语,而作谓语的动词通过各种各样的形式,表现了句子的时态、语态、说话人的语气,以及通过谓语动词的数量可以判断该句是简单句还是复合句等。

1.表现句子时态

根据谓语动词的形态可以大致判断句子的时态。

动词为原形时,句子是一般现在时,表示经常性、习惯性发生的动作或客观事实;或者是放在某些情态动词后保持原形,此时根据情态动词判断时态,如:

一般现在时:My son looks after me everyday. 一般将来时:You won't regret this.

动词为现在分词形式时,句子是进行时态,表示正在进行或持续发生的动作,如:

现在进行时:We are making a big progress. 过去进行时:Am I interrupting? 现在完成进行时:They have been living here for many years.

动词为过去式时,句子是过去时,表示过去发生的动作,如:

一般过去时:Sarah and John broke up last week.

当动词是过去分词时,句子是完成时,表示已经完成的动作,如:

现在完成时:I have seen this before.

2.表现句子语态

当句子是被动句时,动词使用过去分词,表示主语被动发生的动作,如:

一般过去时的被动句:The river was found by the team. 现在完成时的被动句:The meeting has been canceled.

当句子是主动句时,动词使用其它形式,表示主语主动发生的动作,如:

一般将来时的主动句:Tim is going to join us tonight. 现在进行时的主动句:The ice is melting.

3.表现说话人的语气

在一句话中,使用不同的情态动词、实意动词或动词搭配,表达的语气也是不同的。比如使用could比can更礼貌、委婉;没有主语,直接使用动词开头的句子是祈使句,表示请求、指使等;还有一个很复杂的语法点就是句子的虚拟语气,最重要的部分就是使用不同的系动词、情态动词和实意动词搭配而成的,如:

礼貌语气: Could you please sign here? 祈使语气: Get inside, now! 虚拟语气: If I were you, I would accept it.

4.动词数量与句型的关系

由于一个句中谓语动词只能有一个,所以如果一个句子里出现两个谓语动词,那么可以判断该句型是带有从句的,如:

含一个谓语动词:I came here to say thank you. 这个句子中谓语动词是came, 句子主干就是I came here. 后面的to say thank you虽然含有两个动词say和thank, 但say前面有介词to, 这是由to引导的目的状语,并非从句成分,而thank you则是say的宾语,代表说话内容。

含两个谓语动词:The boy said that he saw the man's face. 这个句子中谓语动词有两个,第一个是said, 作为the boy的谓语,第二个是saw, 作he的谓语,that引导出一个宾语从句,从句里有完整的主谓宾成分,而整个从句作为said的宾语。

动词变形

单数第三人称主语的谓语动词V-s

一般现在时态下,且主语为单数第三人称(如he,she,it或人名)时,谓语动词需变形:

1.一般情况下,动词词尾直接加-s, 如: reads, writes; 2.以ch,sh,s,x,o结尾的词,词尾加-es, 如: teach -> teaches, wash -> washes, guess -> guesses, mix -> mixes, go -> goes; 3.以辅音字母加"y"结尾的词,则将"y"变成"i", 再加"es", 如:try -> tries, carry -> carries;

读音变化: 加的"s"一般读音为"z",如hears; 如果动词末尾发音是爆破音如"k","p",则加的"s"发音为"s",如looks; 如果动词末尾发音是"d",则"d"和"s"共同发音"zi",如reads; 如果动词末尾发音是"t",则"t"和"s"共同发音"ci",如writes; 如果动词末尾发音是"x",且"x"和"es"共同发音"ksis"; 某些动词整体读音会发生变化,如say -> says;

进行时态时动词的现在分词V-ing

进行时态下,需要将表示正在进行的动词变为现在分词:

1.一般情况下,动词词尾直接加-ing, 如: look -> looking, meet -> meeting; 2.以单个e结尾,且e不发音,则去掉e, 加-ing, 如:write -> writing, taste -> tasting; 3.以双e结尾的,直接加-ing, 如:agree -> agreeing, see -> seeing; 4.以单一元音字母 + 单一辅音字母结尾的,辅音字母双写,再加-ing, 如:hit -> hitting, run -> running; 5.以y结尾的动词,直接加-ing, 如:carry -> carrying, enjoy -> enjoying;

过去时及完成时态下动词的过去式与过去分词V-ed

一般过去时态下,谓语动词需要变形为过去式;而在完成时态下,谓语动词需要变形为过去分词:

一. 变形规则

1.一般情况下,动词的过去式和过去分词相同,都是动词词尾直接加-ed, 如:work -> worked, play -> played; 2.以字母e结尾的动词,只加-d, 如:live -> lived; move -> moved; 3.以一个元音字母 + 一个辅音字母结尾的动词,辅音字母双写,再加-ed, 如:stop -> stopped; 4.以y结尾的动词,且在y前为辅音字母时,变"y"为"i", 再加-ed, 如:study -> studied; copy -> copied; 5.以y结尾的动词,且在y前为元音字母时,直接加-ed, 如:enjoy -> enjoyed 6.对所有人称均无词形变化; 7.有一部分动词的过去式和过去分词变化形式是不规则的,这类动词被称为不规则动词,变化规律性不强,须多加记忆,总数不多,但使用频率很高,主要分成三类:

a. 不规则动词的三种形式(原形、过去式、过去分词)同形,如: cost cost cost cut cut cut hurt hurt hurt shut shut shut set set set

【注意】有些动词的过去式与过去分词有两种形式,如: bet bet/betted bet/betted wed wed/wedded wed/wedded wet wet/wetted wet/wetted

b. 不规则动词的过去式和过去分词同形,但与原形不同,如: bend bent bent bring brought brought catch caught caught hide hid hid/hidden get got got/gotten lead led led

c. 不规则动词的原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同,如: begin began begun break broke broken forbid forbade forbidden grow grew grown ring rang rung wake woke/waked woken/waked

8.此外还有少数不规则动词的过去分词与原形相同,如: come came come become became become run ran run

二. 不规则动词的过去式的构成

1.把动词原形中的i改为a,变成过去式。如: begin -> began,drink -> drank, give -> gave, ring -> rang, sing -> sang, sit -> sat, swim -> swam

2.把重读开音节中的i改为o,变成过去式。如: drive -> drove, ride -> rode, write -> wrote

3.改动词原形中的aw /ow为ew,变成过去式。如: draw -> drew, grow -> grew,know -> knew,throw -> threw(动词show除外,show—showed)

4.动词原形中的e改为o,变成过去式。如: get -> got, forget -> forgot

5.动词原形中的ee改为e,变成过去式。如: feed -> fed, meet -> met

6.动词原形中的eep改为ept,变成过去式。如: keep -> kept, sleep -> slept, sweep -> swept

7.动词原形中的eak改为oke,变成过去式。如: break -> broke, speak -> spoke

8.动词原形中的ell改为old,变成过去式。如: sell -> sold, tell -> told

9.动词原形中的an改为oo,变成过去式。如: stand -> stood,understand -> understood

10.以ought和aught结尾,且读音是〔 :t〕的过去式。如: bring -> brought,buy -> bought,think -> thought,catch -> caught,teach -> taught

11.以ould结尾且读音为〔ud〕的情态动词过去式。如: can -> could,shall -> should,will -> would

12.把动词原形中的o改为a,变成过去式。如: come -> came,become -> became

13.在动词原形后加d或t变成过去式,并且发生音变。如: hear -> heard, say -> said,mean -> meant

14.动词的过去式与动词原形一样,如: let -> let,put -> put,read -> read

15.不符合上述规律的动词过去式。如: build -> built, eat -> ate, fall -> fell, feel -> felt, find -> found, fly -> flew, go -> went, run—ran, see—saw,take—took

三. 过去式"-ed"的发音规则

1.一般情况下,发/ d /音,如: call -> called, stay -> stayed, cry -> cried

2.动词词尾为"t, d"时,发/ id /音,如: want -> wanted, need -> needed

3.动词词尾为清辅音(如p, f, k, s, sh, ch等)时,发/ t / 音,如: help -> helped, laugh -> laughed, look -> looked, kiss -> kissed, wash -> washed, watch -> watched